Anatomy and physiology discussion - abstracted references
Banks, W. A., M. J. During, et al. (2004). "Brain uptake of the glucagon-like peptide-1 antagonist exendin(9-39) after intranasal administration." J Pharmacol Exp Ther 309(2): 469-75.
Exendin, a member of the glucagon-like peptide-1 family, and its antagonist exendin(9-39) affect cognition and neuronal survival after their intranasal delivery. Here, we examined the uptake of radioactively labeled exendin(9-39) (I-Ex) by the olfactory bulbs, brain (minus pineal, pituitary, and olfactory bulb), cerebrospinal fluid, and cervical lymph nodes (C-node) as well as levels in serum after intranasal or intravenous administration. We found that olfactory bulb uptake of I-Ex after intranasal administration was rapid, much greater than after i.v. administration, and was enhanced by about 60% with cyclodextrin (CD). I-Ex was also taken up by the remainder of the brain after intranasal administration, but this uptake was not enhanced by CD, nor did it exceed uptake after i.v. administered I-Ex. Uptake by the olfactory bulb was not dependent on Brownian motion but did involve active processes. Intranasal I-Ex reached the C-node by way of the blood. About one-sixth of the intranasal dose of I-Ex entered the blood. However, the vascular route accounted for little of the intranasal I-Ex that reached the brain and even less that reached the olfactory bulb. I-Ex after intranasal administration was found in the hippocampus, cerebellum, brain stem, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Distribution patterns showed that intranasal I-Ex used the extraneuronal route of CSF rather than brain parenchyma to diffuse throughout the brain. These results show that intranasal administration is an effective means of delivering peptide to the brain, especially the olfactory bulb.
Chien, Y. W., K. S. E. Su, et al. (1989). "Chapter 1: Anatomy and Physiology of the Nose." Nasal Systemic Drug Delivery Dekker, New York: 1-26.
Cros, C. D., I. Toth, et al. (2014). "Delivery of a lactose derivative of endomorphin 1 to the brain via the olfactory epithelial pathway." Bioorg Med Chem Lett 24(5): 1373-1375.
The rapid and direct delivery of a neuroactive endomorphin 1 derivative to the brain via nasal delivery is reported. A synthetic derivative of the native opioid peptide, endomorphin 1 bearing a lactose unit on the N-terminus of the peptide has been previously reported to exhibit antinoceceptive activity similar to morphine after both intravenous and oral administration. This compound has been administered nasally to rats and appeared in the olfactory bulb within 10min of administration with negligible levels appearing in the circulating blood or in the rest of the brain. These results indicate that the peptide is absorbed into the brain via the olfactory epithelial pathway suggesting nasal delivery may be a viable alternative route of delivery in clinical applications.
Dale, O., R. Hjortkjaer, et al. (2002). "Nasal administration of opioids for pain management in adults." Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 46(7): 759-70.
Nasal administration of opioids may be an alternative route to intravenous, subcutaneous, oral transmucosal, oral or rectal administration in some patients. Key features may be self-administration, combined with rapid onset of action. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the present base of knowledge on this topic. METHODS: The review is based on human studies found in Medline or in the reference list of these papers. The physiology of the nasal mucosa and some pharmaceutical aspects of nasal administration are described. The design of each study is described, but not systematically evaluated. RESULTS: Pharmacokinetic studies in volunteers are reported for fentanyl, alfentanil, sufentanil, butorphanol, oxycodone and buprenorphine. Mean times for achieving maximum serum concentrations vary from 5 to 50 min, while mean figures for bioavailability vary from 46 to 71%. Fentanyl, pethidine and butorphanol have been studied for postoperative pain. Mean onset times vary from 12 to 22 min and times to peak effect from 24 to 60 min. There is considerable interindividual variation in pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome. This may partly be due to lack of optimization of nasal formulations. Patient-controlled nasal analgesia is an effective alternative to intravenous PCA. Adverse effects are mainly those related to the opioids themselves, rather than to nasal administration. Some experience with nasal opioids in outpatients and for chronic pain has also been reported. CONCLUSION: Nasal administration of opioids has promising features, but is still in its infancy. Adequately designed clinical studies are needed. Improvements of nasal sprayer devices and opioid formulations may improve clinical outcome.
Dale, O., Intranasal administration of opioids/fentanyl - Physiological and pharmacological aspects. European Journal of Pain Supplements, 2010. www.europeanjournalpain.com: p. volume and pages pending.
Henry, R. J., N. Ruano, et al. (1998). "A pharmacokinetic study of midazolam in dogs: nasal drop vs. atomizer administration." Pediatr Dent 20(5): 321-6.
The purpose of this investigation was to compare the pharmacokinetics of midazolam following intravenous, intranasal drop, and nasal-atomizer administration in beagle dogs. METHODS: Six animals weighing 9-13 kg were used in a repeated-measure design, group assignment based on route of drug administration. Midazolam (1.5 mg/kg) was administered with the delivery route based on group assignment. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 45 min after administration. Cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) were obtained at 5 and 10 min after administration. Plasma and CSF concentrations of midazolam were determined by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Comparison between groups and over time demonstrated that both nasal routes resulted in significantly higher CSF concentrations relative to corresponding plasma levels, and that nasal-atomizer administration produced significantly higher CSF concentrations compared to the drop approach.
Hussain, A. A. (1989). "Mechanism of nasal absorption of drugs." Prog Clin Biol Res 292: 261-272.
Md, S., S. Haque, et al. (2014). "Optimised nanoformulation of bromocriptine for direct nose-to-brain delivery: biodistribution, pharmacokinetic and dopamine estimation by ultra-HPLC/mass spectrometry method." Expert Opin Drug Deliv 11(6): 827-842.
OBJECTIVE: The present work evaluated whether the prepared nanoparticles (NPs) would be able to target the drug to the brain by a non-invasive nasal route enhancing its bioavailability. METHODS: Bromocriptine (BRC) chitosan NPs (CS NPs) were prepared by ionic gelation method. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetic parameters and dopamine concentration was analysed by ultra-HPLC/mass spectrometry method. The histopathological examination in haloperidol-induced Parkinson's disease in mice model following intranasal (i.n.) administration was evaluated. RESULTS: BRC was found stable in all exposed conditions and the percentage accuracy observed for intra-day and inter-day batch samples ranged from 90.5 to 107% and 95.3 to 98.9% for plasma and brain homogenates, respectively. BRC-loaded CS NPs showed greater retention into the nostrils (42 +/- 8.5% radioactivity) for about 4 h, whereas the 44 +/- 7.5% could be retained up to 1 h for BRC solution. The brain:blood ratios of 0.96 +/- 0.05 > 0.73 +/- 0.15 > 0.25 +/- 0.05 of BRC-loaded CS NPs (i.n.) > BRC solution (i.n.) > BRC-loaded CS NPs (intravenous), respectively, at 0.5 h indicated direct nose-to-brain transport bypassing blood-brain barrier. BRC-loaded CS NPs administered intranasally showed significantly high dopamine concentration (20.65 +/- 1.08 ng/ml) as compared to haloperidol-treated mice (10.94 +/- 2.16 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Histopathology of brain sections showed selective degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in haloperidol-treated mice which was markedly reverted by BRC-loaded CS NPs. CONCLUSION: Nanoparticulate drug delivery system could be potentially used as a nose-to-brain drug delivery carrier for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
Mygind, N. and S. Vesterhauge (1978). "Aerosol distribution in the nose." Rhinology 16(2): 79-88.
Using a cast of the human nose the intranasal distribution of drugs, delivered from pressurized aerosols and nebulizers was studied. The results indicate that a pressurized aerosol should be used twice in each nostril to give an acceptable drug distribution, and also that an automized pump is preferable for a plastic-bottle nebulizer with regard to drug distribution.
Sakane, T., M. Akizuki, et al. (1991). "Transport of cephalexin to the cerebrospinal fluid directly from the nasal cavity." J Pharm Pharmacol 43(6): 449-51.
The aim of the present study has been to confirm the existence of a transport pathway for a drug (cephalexin) to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) directly from the nasal cavity, by comparing the drug's concentrations in CSF after intranasal (i.n.), intravenous (i.v.) and intraduodenal (i.d.) administration. Higher levels of the drug were found in CSF following i.n. administration compared with the i.v. and i.d. routes, even though its plasma concentrations were similar. These findings suggest the existence of a direct transport pathway for cephalexin from the nasal cavity to the CSF. The concentration of drug in CSF at 15 min after i.n. administration was higher than that at 30 min. In contrast, its concentrations in CSF at 15 min after i.v. and i.d. administration were not significantly different from those at 30 min. The results confirm the presence of a direct transport pathway to CSF from the nasal cavity. This pathway may represent a new delivery route to CSF and possibly to brain parenchyma.
Westin, Ue, et al. (2006). "Direct nose-to-brain transfer of morphine after nasal administration to rats." Pharm Res 23(3): 565-72.
The aim of this study was to quantify the olfactory transfer of morphine to the brain hemispheres by comparing brain tissue and plasma morphine levels after nasal administration with those after intravenous administration. METHODS: Morphine (1.0 mg/kg body weight) was administered via the right nostril or intravenously as a 15-min constant-rate infusion to male rats. The content of morphine and its metabolite morphine-3-glucuronide in samples of the olfactory bulbs, brain hemispheres, and plasma was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the areas under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were calculated. RESULTS: At both 5 and 15 min after administration, brain hemisphere morphine concentrations after nasal administration were similar to those after i.v. administration of the same dose, despite lower plasma concentrations after nasal administration. The brain hemispheres/plasma morphine AUC ratios for the 0-5 min period were thus approximately 3 and 0.1 after nasal and i.v. administration, respectively, demonstrating a statistically significant early distribution advantage of morphine to the brain hemispheres via the nasal route. CONCLUSION: Morphine is transferred via olfactory pathways to the brain hemispheres, and drug transfer via this route significantly contributes to the early high brain concentrations after nasal administration to rats.