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Intranasal oxymetazoline and thrombin for the treatment of epistaxis - abstracted references


Bent, J. P., 3rd and B. P. Wood (1999). "Complications resulting from treatment of severe posterior epistaxis." J Laryngol Otol 113(3): 252-4.

            Recent advances in nasal endoscopy and arterial embolization have improved the treatment of severe posterior epistaxis. This report reviews the therapeutic options, including a case of epistaxis that did not respond to nasal packing but was successfully controlled with superselective arterial embolization. The discussion includes an outline of potential complications of epistaxis treatment, including a case of nasal septal perforation.

Chen, S. t., T. Karnezis, et al. (2011). "Safety of intranasal Bevacizumab (Avastin) treatment in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia-associated epistaxis." Laryngoscope 121(3): 644-646.

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Assess for complications of intranasal Bevacizumab application in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)-associated epistaxis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: In 58 patients presenting with recurrent HHT epistaxis, Bevacizumab was applied intranasally either as a submucosal injection or as a topical spray between October 2006 and June 2010. In many of the injected patients, the potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser was used adjunctively for vessel photocoagulation. A phone interview was performed in July 2010 to assess for treatment complications. RESULTS: Of the 58 treated patients 52 were contacted. Patient surveys were performed 1.5 to 46 months following their initial Bevacizumab treatment. Within the treatment population, five patients had sustained a septal perforation. Notably, these patients were treated early in the study period at which time the cartilaginous septum was often both injected and lasered. Subsequently, the treatment protocol was changed and the cartilaginous septum was neither lasered nor injected. After these changes were made no additional septal perforations were identified. No other adverse events were associated with intranasal Bevacizumab treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab applied as either a submucosal injection or as a topical nasal spray, with or without application of the KTP laser, is a safe treatment regimen. Still, when Bevacizumab injections are performed, the cartilaginous nasal septum should be avoided as patients may develop septal perforations.

Doo, G. and D. S. Johnson (1999). "Oxymetazoline in the treatment of posterior epistaxis." Hawaii Med J 58(8):

            In this retrospective study, 36 patients were given oxymetazoline as a first step in treatment for posterior epistaxis. In 75% of the cases, epistaxis was effectively treated with oxymetazoline with no recurrent bleeding. All cases with recurrence resolved with continued administration of oxymetazoline. The results of this study propose a pharmacologic intervention for the treatment of posterior epistaxis.

Evans, J. A. and T. Rothenhaus (2007). "Epistaxis." Emedicine:

Greher, M., T. Hartmann, et al. (1998). "Hypertension and pulmonary edema associated with subconjunctival phenylephrine in a 2-month-old child during cataract extraction." Anesthesiology 88(5): 1394-6.

Groudine, S. B., I. Hollinger, et al. (2000). "New York State guidelines on the topical use of phenylephrine in the operating room. The Phenylephrine Advisory Committee." Anesthesiology 92(3): 859-64.

Hady, M. R., K. Z. Kodeira, et al. (1983). "The effect of nasal packing on arterial blood gases and acid-base balance and its clinical importance." J Laryngol Otol 97(7): 599-604.

            Arterial blood samples were taken from adult healthy patients before and 24 hours after bilateral nasal packing. The blood samples were investigated for PO2, PCO2, HCO3, pH and Hb. It was found that there is (i) an increase of high significance of PCO2 and HCO3-, (ii)) a significant increase of percentage of Hb., (iii) a highly significant decrease of PO2 in patients after nasal packing; (iv) as regards the pH, no significant difference was found. What we suggest is that bilateral anterior nasal pack results in hypoxia and hypercapnia due to hypoventilation.

Kalyanaraman, M., R. L. Carpenter, et al. (1997). "Cardiopulmonary compromise after use of topical and submucosal alpha- agonists: possible added complication by the use of beta-blocker therapy." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 117(1): 56-61.

            We report the specifics of 12 cases of severe hypertension after the intraoperative use of topical phenylephrine, submucosal epinephrine, or both. Ten of these 12 patients also developed severe pulmonary edema. Seven of the twelve were treated with beta blockers; 3 of whom suffered cardiac arrest. We propose a common mechanism: the vasoconstrictors caused systemic hypertension, increased left ventricular afterload, decreased left ventricular compliance, and decreased cardiac output. In those patients treated with beta blockers, decreased contractility and inability to increase heart rate further compromised cardiopulmonary function.

Katz, R. I., A. R. Hovagim, et al. (1990). "A comparison of cocaine, lidocaine with epinephrine, and oxymetazoline for prevention of epistaxis on nasotracheal intubation." J Clin Anesth 2(1): 16-20.

            The alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline was compared to cocaine and to lidocaine with epinephrine with respect to prevention of epistaxis on nasotracheal intubation. The nares of three groups of 14 patients each were topically pretreated with 4% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine (group 1), 10% cocaine (group 2), or 0.05% oxymetazoline (group 3) prior to nasotracheal intubation. After intubation, epistaxis was estimated on a scale of 0 to 3, with 0 indicating no bleeding, 1 representing blood on the nasotracheal tube only, 2 indicating blood pooling in the pharynx, and 3 representing blood in the pharynx sufficient to impede intubation. Only 29% of the patients in group 1 displayed no bleeding, whereas 57% of those in group 2 and 86% of those in group 3 had no bleeding. Nonparametric analysis showed a statistically significant difference (p less than 0.013) between oxymetazoline and lidocaine with epinephrine. In addition, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were examined prior to administration of the medications; at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes after administration of the medications; and after intubation. No significant differences were noted (p greater than 0.05) between the medications except for a slightly higher systolic BP for cocaine than for lidocaine with epinephrine at 15 minutes. The results of this double-blind, randomized trial demonstrate that the alpha-adrenergic agonist oxymetazoline is as effective as cocaine, and more effective than lidocaine with epinephrine, for the prevention of epistaxis associated with nasotracheal intubation.

Krempl, G. A. and A. D. Noorily (1995). "Use of oxymetazoline in the management of epistaxis." Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 104(9 Pt 1): 704-6.

            The purpose of this study was to determine if use of an intranasal vasoconstrictor (oxymetazoline) could be used to effectively treat epistaxis, avoiding nasal packing. The charts of 60 patients who presented to the emergency room with the diagnosis of epistaxis and who required medical management were reviewed. Sixty-five percent of these patients were successfully managed with oxymetazoline as their sole therapy. An additional 18% were managed successfully with silver nitrate cautery in combination with oxymetazoline. In only 17% of patients was it necessary to use nasal packing as treatment for epistaxis after an initial attempt with oxymetazoline alone or in combination with silver nitrate failed. These data suggest that pharmacologic management may be adequate in the majority of patients with epistaxis, thus avoiding the need for nasal packing with its associated complications.

Lennox, P., J. Hern, et al. (1996). "Local anaesthesia in flexible nasendoscopy. A comparison between cocaine and co-phenylcaine." J Laryngol Otol 110(6): 540-2.

            Flexible nasendoscopy is now an integral part of the diagnostic process in Otorhinolaryngology. Topical local anaesthesia is generally recommended and cocaine is usually the drug of choice in view of its concurrent vasoconstrictor action. However, it is expensive, a controlled drug and serious side effects have been reported. Co-phenylcaine forte is a new preparation which also has both local anaesthetic and vasoconstrictor properties. This study compares the efficacy of cocaine and Co-phenylcaine in flexible nasendoscopy and concludes that they provide similar local anaesthesia and vasoconstriction of the nasal mucosa. Co-phenylcaine forte can therefore be used as an alternative to cocaine in flexible nasendoscopy.

Monte, E. D., M. J. Belmont, et al. (1999). "Management paradigms for posterior epistaxis: A comparison of costs and complications." Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121(1): 103-6.

            OBJECTIVES: Posterior epistaxis is a common otolaryngologic emergency. Management is controversial because of the many treatment options available. These options vary in efficacy, rates of complications, and cost. Posterior nasal packing is the medical management most frequently used to control posterior epistaxis. It is associated with major complications, including stroke, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, and death. Because of these potential complications, many otolaryngologists monitor patients with posterior nasal packing in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, the level of care used to monitor these patients is variable, and standards have not been established. METHODS: From 1991 to 1997, 46 patients had posterior nasal packing placed to control epistaxis. Management, complications, and hospital charges were analyzed. RESULTS: Six patients (13%) were admitted to the ICU, 2 (4%) were admitted for telemetry monitoring, and 38 (83%) were sent to the ENT ward for continuous pulse oximetry. Four major complications occurred (1 episode of syncope [emergency department], 2 arrhythmias [ICU], and 1 death [hospice]). Twenty-six patients were treated with posterior packing in the ENT ward, at a mean cost of $2988. Fourteen patients underwent intervention (5 ligations, 6 endoscopic cauterizations, and 3 angiograms), with a mean cost of $5482. Six patients spent time in the ICU, with a mean cost of $8242. Patients treated in the ENT ward had significantly lower costs than those undergoing intervention (P = 0.017) or those admitted to the ICU (P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: We propose that most patients with posterior epistaxis can be treated in specialized ENT wards. This can be done without increasing complications and with significantly decreased costs.

O'Hanlon, J. and K. W. Harper (1994). "Epistaxis and nasotracheal intubation--prevention with vasoconstrictor spray." Ir J Med Sci 163(2): 58-60.

            Eighty patients having anaesthesia for oral surgery requiring nasal intubation were randomly allocated to be intubated with either a plain Magill red rubber or cuffed polyethylene endotracheal tube and in a double blind manner, to receive xylometazoline 0.1% vasoconstrictor nasal spray. The extent of any epistaxis occurring was assessed by an independent observer. With the Magill tube there was bleeding in one out of twenty patients in both the vasoconstrictor group and non vasoconstrictor group at intubation and no bleeding in either of the two groups at extubation. With the polyethylene tube sixteen out of twenty patients had bleeding in the non vasoconstrictor group. This improved to seven out of twenty with the administration of vasoconstrictor drops at intubation (chi square 10.2; p < 0.01) in the polyethylene tube group. At extubation ten out of twenty patients had bleeding in the non vasoconstrictor group improving to two out of twenty with the administration of the vasoconstrictor (chi square 9.6; p,0.01). The use of the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline helped to reduce epistaxis that occurred during nasal intubation and further study into the type of endotracheal tube is recommended.

Riegle, E. V., J. B. Gunter, et al. (1992). "Comparison of vasoconstrictors for functional endoscopic sinus surgery in children." Laryngoscope 102(7): 820-3.

Three different vasoconstricting agents were evaluated during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) in 57 children. Oxymetazoline hydrochloride 0.05%, phenylephrine hydrochloride 0.25%, or cocaine 4% was applied to the nasal mucosa in a prospective, randomized, double-blind fashion. Heart rate and blood pressure changes were recorded 5 and 10 minutes after application of the study vasoconstrictor to each nostril. The surgeon's subjective impressions of bleeding and visualization were recorded for each side of the nose, as were total blood loss and anesthesia time. Although all three vasoconstrictors were tolerated well by the children, there was a suggestion that heart rate decreased more at 5 minutes with phenylephrine than with oxymetazoline or cocaine (P = .08) and that blood pressure increased more at 10 minutes with phenylephrine than with oxymetazoline or cocaine (P = .1). No arrhythmias were noted. Subjective scoring for bleeding showed that children receiving oxymetazoline were less likely to receive scores of "more" bleeding than usual (3/38 vs. 10/34 for phenylephrine and 10/35 for cocaine, P less than .02). Subjective scoring for visualization showed that children receiving oxymetazoline were also less likely to receive scores of "worse" visualization than usual (3/38 vs. 12/38 for phenylephrine and 9/35 for cocaine, P less than .01). There was no difference in surgical bleeding or visualization between children receiving phenylephrine and children receiving cocaine. In our institution, 0.05% oxymetazoline is the preferred vasoconstrictor for FESS in children.